This work by the French painter, illustrator, engraver, caricaturist, and lithographer Gustave Doré appears in Doré’s illustrated Bible, published in 1865. Its representation of the prophet is the visual antithesis of the silent, bedridden Micah in the medieval manuscript illumination elsewhere in this exhibition: here, Micah has forsaken the boudoir for the public square. He speaks, standing up, fully clothed, both arms extended upward, imploring the people’s attention.
This is indeed how the Bible remembers Micah being remembered in the prophet Jeremiah’s day.
And some of the elders of the land arose and said to all the assembled people, 'Micah of Moresheth, who prophesied during the days of King Hezekiah of Judah, said to all the people of Judah: “Thus says the Lord of hosts, Zion shall be plowed as a field; Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins, and the mountain of the house a wooded height”’(Jeremiah 26:17–18)
Micah is a prophet against prophets. The figure of the prophet, along with that of the prince and the priest, comprise the troika of corrupt elites that Micah vehemently indicts (Micah 3:11). Like Jeremiah a generation later, Micah decried prophecy at a time when the motive of the prophet had become fatally corrupted by the profit motive.
And, like Jeremiah, Micah prophesies to mixed reviews. The audience in Doré’s engraving suggests a varied reception: some in the crowd appear to be pensive; others, anguished; yet others, annoyed. At lower right, a man attends to Micah’s rant, but his body language speaks of his ambivalence: though he glances back in the prophet’s direction, his torso is turned forward, and, in mid-stride with staff in hand, he appears to have other places to go and other things to do.
1 The word of the Lord that came to Micah of Moʹresheth in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiʹah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samarʹia and Jerusalem.
2Hear, you peoples, all of you;
hearken, O earth, and all that is in it;
and let the Lord God be a witness against you,
the Lord from his holy temple.
3For behold, the Lord is coming forth out of his place,
and will come down and tread upon the high places of the earth.
4And the mountains will melt under him
and the valleys will be cleft,
like wax before the fire,
like waters poured down a steep place.
5All this is for the transgression of Jacob
and for the sins of the house of Israel.
What is the transgression of Jacob?
Is it not Samarʹia?
And what is the sin of the house of Judah?
Is it not Jerusalem?
6Therefore I will make Samarʹia a heap in the open country,
a place for planting vineyards;
and I will pour down her stones into the valley,
and uncover her foundations.
7All her images shall be beaten to pieces,
all her hires shall be burned with fire,
and all her idols I will lay waste;
for from the hire of a harlot she gathered them,
and to the hire of a harlot they shall return.
8For this I will lament and wail;
I will go stripped and naked;
I will make lamentation like the jackals,
and mourning like the ostriches.
9For her wound is incurable;
and it has come to Judah,
it has reached to the gate of my people,
10Tell it not in Gath,
weep not at all;
roll yourselves in the dust.
11Pass on your way,
inhabitants of Shaphir,
in nakedness and shame;
the inhabitants of Zaʹanan
do not come forth;
the wailing of Beth-eʹzel
shall take away from you its standing place.
12For the inhabitants of Maroth
wait anxiously for good,
because evil has come down from the Lord
to the gate of Jerusalem.
13Harness the steeds to the chariots,
inhabitants of Lachish;
you were the beginning of sin
to the daughter of Zion,
for in you were found
the transgressions of Israel.
14Therefore you shall give parting gifts
the houses of Achzib shall be a deceitful thing
to the kings of Israel.
15I will again bring a conqueror upon you,
inhabitants of Mareʹshah;
the glory of Israel
shall come to Adullam.
16Make yourselves bald and cut off your hair,
for the children of your delight;
make yourselves as bald as the eagle,
for they shall go from you into exile.
2Woe to those who devise wickedness
and work evil upon their beds!
When the morning dawns, they perform it,
because it is in the power of their hand.
2They covet fields, and seize them;
and houses, and take them away;
they oppress a man and his house,
a man and his inheritance.
3Therefore thus says the Lord:
Behold, against this family I am devising evil,
from which you cannot remove your necks;
and you shall not walk haughtily,
for it will be an evil time.
4In that day they shall take up a taunt song against you,
and wail with bitter lamentation,
and say, “We are utterly ruined;
he changes the portion of my people;
how he removes it from me!
Among our captors he divides our fields.”
5Therefore you will have none to cast the line by lot
in the assembly of the Lord.
6“Do not preach”—thus they preach—
“one should not preach of such things;
disgrace will not overtake us.”
7Should this be said, O house of Jacob?
Is the Spirit of the Lord impatient?
Are these his doings?
Do not my words do good
to him who walks uprightly?
8But you rise against my people as an enemy;
you strip the robe from the peaceful,
from those who pass by trustingly
with no thought of war.
9The women of my people you drive out
from their pleasant houses;
from their young children you take away
my glory for ever.
10Arise and go,
for this is no place to rest;
because of uncleanness that destroys
with a grievous destruction.
11If a man should go about and utter wind and lies,
saying, “I will preach to you of wine and strong drink,”
he would be the preacher for this people!
12I will surely gather all of you, O Jacob,
I will gather the remnant of Israel;
I will set them together
like a sheep in a fold,
like a flock in its pasture,
a noisy multitude of men.
13He who opens the breach will go up before them;
they will break through and pass the gate,
going out by it.
Their king will pass on before them,
the Lord at their head.
3And I said:
Hear, you heads of Jacob
and rulers of the house of Israel!
Is it not for you to know justice?—
2you who hate the good and love the evil,
who tear the skin from off my people,
and their flesh from off their bones;
3who eat the flesh of my people,
and flay their skin from off them,
and break their bones in pieces,
and chop them up like meat in a kettle,
like flesh in a caldron.
4Then they will cry to the Lord,
but he will not answer them;
he will hide his face from them at that time,
because they have made their deeds evil.
5Thus says the Lord concerning the prophets
who lead my people astray,
who cry “Peace”
when they have something to eat,
but declare war against him
who puts nothing into their mouths.
6Therefore it shall be night to you, without vision,
and darkness to you, without divination.
The sun shall go down upon the prophets,
and the day shall be black over them;
7the seers shall be disgraced,
and the diviners put to shame;
they shall all cover their lips,
for there is no answer from God.
8But as for me, I am filled with power,
with the Spirit of the Lord,
and with justice and might,
to declare to Jacob his transgression
and to Israel his sin.
9Hear this, you heads of the house of Jacob
and rulers of the house of Israel,
who abhor justice
and pervert all equity,
10who build Zion with blood
and Jerusalem with wrong.
11Its heads give judgment for a bribe,
its priests teach for hire,
its prophets divine for money;
yet they lean upon the Lord and say,
“Is not the Lord in the midst of us?
No evil shall come upon us.”
12Therefore because of you
Zion shall be plowed as a field;
Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins,
and the mountain of the house a wooded height.