This work is by Solomon Joseph Solomon, an artist with a Jewish background. He gives great attention here to the looks exchanged between Delilah and Samson: vixenish delight on the one and anguished defeat on the other. At the same time, he gives limited attention to the narrative as portrayed in Judges 16.
In a scene of utter chaos betokening struggle, Samson is being bound with ropes (16:12), but not by Delilah as described in the biblical text. A body lies on the floor; a table is overturned; the shears that have shaved Samson lie discarded in the lower left of the painting. In representing the moment when the Philistines seize Samson (16:21—‘And the Philistines seized him and gouged out his eyes’), the artist highlights Delilah’s betrayal as she is shown taunting him with his shaven hair in her hand, held out in a mocking gesture. She is bare breasted, but less voluptuous than in many other portrayals (the seventeenth-century Delilahs of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, for example).
The painting reflects the style of the Parisian Salon in its scale, its violent intensity, and its voyeuristic depiction of nudity. Solomon develops the violent implications of the more sparse biblical narrative, portraying Samson as a powerful figure held by four men with a further two recumbent figures as victims of the struggle. In the left background, a group of armed soldiers have begun pouring into the room, perhaps from the ‘inner chamber’, where Judges 16:12 tells us they were lying in wait.
Who then are the naked figures here binding Samson? They seem to have no biblical origins, but the chaos of this dramatic episode gives an opportunity for the artist to demonstrate his skills in painting the human body. Indeed, the story of Samson and Delilah was popular with artists in part because it provided just such (acceptable) occasions to paint nakedness, and this work was admired in particular for its dynamic male nudes (Valentine 1999: 158).
The gloating Delilah is also entirely unbiblical. The text—insofar as it tells us anything about her attitude—suggests that she pursued her ends with cold deliberation.
Bernard, Bruce. 1988. The Bible and Its Painters (London: Macdonald)
Solomon, Solomon Joseph.  2012. The Practice of Oil Painting and Drawing (New York: Dover Publications)
Valentine, Helen. 1999. Art in the Age of Queen Victoria (New Haven: Yale University Press)
16 Samson went to Gaza, and there he saw a harlot, and he went in to her. 2The Gazites were told, “Samson has come here,” and they surrounded the place and lay in wait for him all night at the gate of the city. They kept quiet all night, saying, “Let us wait till the light of the morning; then we will kill him.” 3But Samson lay till midnight, and at midnight he arose and took hold of the doors of the gate of the city and the two posts, and pulled them up, bar and all, and put them on his shoulders and carried them to the top of the hill that is before Hebron.
4 After this he loved a woman in the valley of Sorek, whose name was Deliʹlah. 5And the lords of the Philistines came to her and said to her, “Entice him, and see wherein his great strength lies, and by what means we may overpower him, that we may bind him to subdue him; and we will each give you eleven hundred pieces of silver.” 6And Deliʹlah said to Samson, “Please tell me wherein your great strength lies, and how you might be bound, that one could subdue you.” 7And Samson said to her, “If they bind me with seven fresh bowstrings which have not been dried, then I shall become weak, and be like any other man.” 8Then the lords of the Philistines brought her seven fresh bowstrings which had not been dried, and she bound him with them. 9Now she had men lying in wait in an inner chamber. And she said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he snapped the bowstrings, as a string of tow snaps when it touches the fire. So the secret of his strength was not known.
10 And Deliʹlah said to Samson, “Behold, you have mocked me, and told me lies; please tell me how you might be bound.” 11And he said to her, “If they bind me with new ropes that have not been used, then I shall become weak, and be like any other man.” 12So Deliʹlah took new ropes and bound him with them, and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And the men lying in wait were in an inner chamber. But he snapped the ropes off his arms like a thread.
13 And Deliʹlah said to Samson, “Until now you have mocked me, and told me lies; tell me how you might be bound.” And he said to her, “If you weave the seven locks of my head with the web and make it tight with the pin, then I shall become weak, and be like any other man.” 14So while he slept, Deliʹlah took the seven locks of his head and wove them into the web. And she made them tight with the pin, and said to him, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” But he awoke from his sleep, and pulled away the pin, the loom, and the web.
15 And she said to him, “How can you say, ‘I love you,’ when your heart is not with me? You have mocked me these three times, and you have not told me wherein your great strength lies.” 16And when she pressed him hard with her words day after day, and urged him, his soul was vexed to death. 17And he told her all his mind, and said to her, “A razor has never come upon my head; for I have been a Nazirite to God from my mother’s womb. If I be shaved, then my strength will leave me, and I shall become weak, and be like any other man.”
18 When Deliʹlah saw that he had told her all his mind, she sent and called the lords of the Philistines, saying, “Come up this once, for he has told me all his mind.” Then the lords of the Philistines came up to her, and brought the money in their hands. 19She made him sleep upon her knees; and she called a man, and had him shave off the seven locks of his head. Then she began to torment him, and his strength left him. 20And she said, “The Philistines are upon you, Samson!” And he awoke from his sleep, and said, “I will go out as at other times, and shake myself free.” And he did not know that the Lord had left him. 21And the Philistines seized him and gouged out his eyes, and brought him down to Gaza, and bound him with bronze fetters; and he ground at the mill in the prison. 22But the hair of his head began to grow again after it had been shaved.