In these three interpretations of Jonah’s deliverance from the ‘big fish’, we are invited to reflect on his experience through three contrasting lenses. In Pieter Lastman’s interpretation, the moment of deliverance is the sudden and violent release from the fish’s belly, as Jonah is cast towards the rocks by divine fiat. The God of heaven, maker of sea and dry land, is a God of power—master of all that flies in the air, creeps on the ground, or swims in the oceans.
After spending three days and nights in the belly of the sea creature, in the depths of the sea, Jonah prays a psalm of thanksgiving (2:2–9). The psalm includes a humorous parody of some of the conventional language of lament psalms: ‘The waters closed in over me; the deep surrounded me; weeds were wrapped around my head at the roots of the mountains’ (2:5 NRSV). The threatening imagery of sea and waves to depict distress in the Psalms has become a reality for Jonah! It also, conveniently for Jonah, allows him to place the blame for his predicament squarely on God’s shoulders: ‘You cast me into the deep, into the heart of the seas’! (2:3). Is this really a psalm of repentance, or rather a self-righteous defence of his actions, and a cry against the wickedness of those ‘who worship vain idols’ and ‘forsake true loyalty’ (2:8)? Lastman’s Jonah, despite his age and experience, is still learning the lessons of human obedience and divine providence, hands flailing, naked as from birth. We are invited to identify with Jonah, throwing his arms up in helplessness towards heaven.
The ‘conversation’ between the psalm in chapter 2 and Lastman’s depiction of verse 10, brings to light the unresolved temporal ambiguity of the Hebrew poetry in the psalm, which is difficult to interpret. If the present tense is intended, Jonah is crying out to God for deliverance from the belly of the sea creature. If we read it in the past tense, however, Jonah is already offering a hymn of thanksgiving within the belly of the fish for his deliverance from death by the fish. Lastman’s interpretation chimes with traditional Christian interpretation, that Jonah’s journey to the depths of the sea in the belly of the fish and his return to land three days later symbolized Christ’s burial and resurrection. Therefore, the moment of deliverance is indeed the moment of re-birth from the ‘belly of Sheol’ (2:2).
For the fourteenth-century Muslim illustrator, however, the moment of deliverance has already taken place in Jonah’s repentance, before he emerges from the fish’s mouth. If God can forgive Jonah, he can forgive us also. The divine wings of protection and blessing dominate the scene, reassuring us of God’s presence even in the depths. Jonah’s serenity, even in his vulnerability—such a contrast from Lastman’s depiction of the scene—is both striking and inspiring. We are faced with a humbled, wise, and patient Jonah, thankful for his new life by God’s grace. Rather different from the scared, angry, and resentful Jonah of the biblical text, who is scornful of God’s grace and mercy when it is extended to others (4:2), much like the elder brother in the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11–32).
In the biblical text, God is in control of every element of the narrative: the wind upon the sea (1:4); the lots cast by the sailors (1:7); the appearance of the fish to swallow and then spew out Jonah (2:1); his decision to spare the Ninevites (3:10); the plant growing as a shelter for Jonah (4:6), and the worm appointed to devour it (4:7). On the ship in the storm, Jonah learns the hard way that he cannot escape from the presence of God, and yet it is the very assurance of God’s presence that he seeks when he is in the belly of the fish (2:2). The Jonah of the Jamiʿ al-Tawarikh is inscribed with lines from the poet Sa’adi’s didactic work, reflecting on life and how it ought to be lived, in the knowledge that God ordains creation and history. From this Jonah we can learn the humility of patience and repentance, and the power of the God of heaven, who makes the sea, the sea creatures, the land, and the plants.
Lorenzetto’s statue takes us a step further away from the text, to see in Jonah the power of the God of heaven over life and death. The moment of deliverance is not the expulsion from the fish but the vanquishing of death itself. Jonah’s proud stance gives us confidence that we too can trample on our enemies, and gives us hope in redemption and the resurrection of the dead.
2 Then Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the belly of the fish, 2saying,
“I called to the Lord, out of my distress,
and he answered me;
out of the belly of Sheol I cried,
and thou didst hear my voice.
3For thou didst cast me into the deep,
into the heart of the seas,
and the flood was round about me;
all thy waves and thy billows
passed over me.
4Then I said, ‘I am cast out
from thy presence;
how shall I again look
upon thy holy temple?’
5The waters closed in over me,
the deep was round about me;
weeds were wrapped about my head
6at the roots of the mountains.
I went down to the land
whose bars closed upon me for ever;
yet thou didst bring up my life from the Pit,
O Lord my God.
7When my soul fainted within me,
I remembered the Lord;
and my prayer came to thee,
into thy holy temple.
8Those who pay regard to vain idols
forsake their true loyalty.
9But I with the voice of thanksgiving
will sacrifice to thee;
what I have vowed I will pay.
Deliverance belongs to the Lord!”
10And the Lord spoke to the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land.